Transportation
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Kasetsart University has targeted and developed to be the “Knowledge of the Land” University with a strong, continuous and sustainable and linkage to the agricultural sciences, which are the fundamental of the university by combining with the introduction of the science of the king, the community, and the universal sciences to Integrate academic creativity and lead to a leading university. One of the major goals in physics is to develop into a green university with a focus on internal transport policy which helps students and personnel reduce personal car and motorcycles use on campus travel. By limiting the number of cars and motorcycles pass through the university is an important factor in reducing carbon emissions. Therefore, the transportation system policy has been set up on campus by providing service buses and trams for students, personnel and visitors to facilitate travel for free and also to reduce the use of cars inside the university. This will help alleviate traffic jams and limit parking areas in the university as well as reducing air and noise pollution.

The ratio of total 0.193 

Total number of vehicles: 16,029

Total campus population: 82,962

Ratio = 0.193

Category of vehicles for public transportation within KU.

Providing welfare electric bus services

23 seats electrical tram

20 seats air-conditioned bus

Providing welfare diesel bus services

25 seat bus25 – 30 seat tram

Figure 5.4 Category of vehicles for public transportation within KU.

       The Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs, also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all united nation members. The SDGs are integrated, universal and transformative—that is, they recognize action in one area that will affect outcomes in others, and development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. Simultaneously, UI GreenMetric World University Ranking is one of the most important organizations which believes that many universities around the world have strong efforts to implement environmentally friendly and sustainable policies and programs. In 2019, the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking has the major important topic which involves the SDGs “Sustainable University in a Changing World: Lessons, Challenges and Opportunities”. The subtopics can be described from Kasetsart University’s concepts as following: Lessons–This suite of lessons looks at the environmental threats to the planet and provides plenty of involving interactive tasks to help people in community understand how they can live more sustainable lives. Particularly, the lesson is defined as one of the most significant procedure to transform the community. Hence, the lesson is one of the most important practices that the university always realizes. Challenges– – Basically, sustainable development is a long- term solution to how the university plans indefinite progress in the future without causing damage to the environment so as to guarantee a safe habitat for the next generations who will continue to develop their economies, societies, and care for the environment with a similar ideal in mind. This satisfies the needs without sabotaging the opportunities of others. The concept covers a broad scope of matters such as environmental, social, and economic development which continues to prove its importance in our lives as it affects all aspects of them. The challenges are so necessary in current environment and they can help in living a more conscious and altruistic life. Kasetsart University has an effort to conduct knowledge resources by integrating with agricultural, environmental management and so on. Opportunities— The Sustainable Development Goals present a unique and critical challenge for universities around the world. But they’ re also bringing to light some of the biggest investment opportunities in a generation. There are big opportunities for purposeful development in the universities’ community. By finding better solutions to some of the challenges which are not only helping to achieve the SDGs; they are also opening up substantial growth opportunities, because they are meeting an unmet need and tapping into long- term demand drivers. From the three significant subtopics are the university’s intentions which are steadily and regularly concerned to construct identity of community in Kasetsart University.

        As it was mentioned earlier, Kasetsart University has intentionally concerned in what the world has being faced and what the university have to necessarily do. Continuously, there are many university’ s policies that relate to enhance quality living of all people in the university and community around us. The mentioned policies earlier, they are called “Three Paradigms of Transformation” which are the main concerns for developing the university. The paradigms are the key elements to integrate people’ s cooperation surroundings the community and in Kasetsart University. Firstly, the first paradigm is determined as “Public Service” which is a significant service intended to serve all members of the community. Latterly, the second paradigm relates to Social Engagement which includes activity, interaction, social exchange, and lack of compulsion. The university has built the continuum of community commitment to develop this paradigm such as transactional, transitional and transformational engagement. And the last paradigm is defined as “Agricultural Innovation” which means working process with leading agricultural researchers, businesses, landowners, and farmers to develop the knowledge and technologies that will make modern farming more sustainable, resilient, and productive. Through practical and interactive workshops, farm walks, and on- farm demonstrations, this will help the community to put knowledge into practice.  Furthermore, Kasetsart University always realize in constructing a happy, vibrant community, and also making strong social connections that create a sense of belonging. And along with belonging comes a sense of responsibility to support each other. With a strong sense of belonging and knowing other community members will take care of each other comes a sense of peace, security, and meaning. Consequently, the “Three Paradigms of Transformation” are the major factors that can be seen in Kasetsart University’s activities.

5.5 Shuttle services is provided by the university, regular, and zero emission.  

Lesson: Best Practice for Shuttle Services

Public Service:

       Kasetsart University has set a policy for resource sharing within the university. To limit the number of vehicles traveling on campus and reduce the amount of emissions from vehicles. Therefore, the University provided 25-seat welfare bus services for free of charge for convenient and safe of commuting of students and personnel, as well as visitors in the campuses. In addition, the University purchased no less than 25-seat trams under the KU – Green Campus Healthy Community project from 2008 to the present. The operations on each campus are as follows:

Bang Khen campus has five 25-seat diesel buses, six 21-seat electric buses, seven diesel-powered trams and fifteen electric trams, a total of 19 cars, 15 car drivers and set the routes for transportation services for students and personnel within Kasetsart University as follows:

Part-time service: Sending students to the teaching areas, back to the dormitory and deliver to the gates of the university on Monday-Friday, from 06.30 hrs. – 18.30 hrs.

After hours service: Semester opening – Service hours from 18.30 hrs. – 21.30 hrs.

Semester break – Service hours from 18.30 hrs. – 20.30 hrs.

Saturday, Sunday and public holidays – Service hours from 07.00 hrs. – 17.00 hrs.

       The University provides bus service to students, personnel, and general public who come to contact the departments within the university, consisting of 5 routes. The average distance of traveling from various entrance to the teaching areas of each 1-5 route is about 1.6 kilometers.

Figure 5.5.1 Electical tram service within Bang Khen campus of Kasetsart University

       In December 2018, in order to meet the Green University image, Bang Khen campus implemented the electric tram procurement project comprised of fifteen 23-seats electric trams with a charging station to provide public transportation within KU, as well as to reduce diesel fuel consumption, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and a speed limit of 25 – 30 km./hr. with GPS installed to show results in the application to check the route and information. In addition, 74 smart signs were installed at the on-campus bus stops. There is a QR code for showing various details in the new stop signs so that passengers can check the welfare bus services currently and more convenient.

Social Engagement 

       The public transport service of Kasetsart University, Bang Khen campus is not only to provides transportation services for students, personnel of Kasetsart University. But also provide comprehensive services to agencies and personnel of Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, and general public who come to the University for information requirement and activities.

Kasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen Campus Provides transportation services on Monday-Friday as welfare for students and staff (Free of charge), starting from 07.15 – 16.30 hrs. Serving about 100 trips per day with 2 routes, 4 cars per route. The average distance of service is 4 kilometers (re-adjusting the time by the bus will leave from bus stop every 5 minutes).

Figure 5.5.2 Welfare bus service within Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen campus

Sriracha campus provides one route of two trams service for students and staff and the average service distance is 5 kilometers. 

Figure 5.5.3 Welfare bus service within Kasetsart University, Sriracha campus

Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus provides 4 service trams. There are 2 routes. The average service distance is 7 kilometers. Service hours is between 07.00 – 17.00 hrs. 

Tram service schedule of Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province campus are as follows:

A1 and A2 

Building Section – Central canteen – Talfah women dormitory– Nonsi women dormitory – Intanin male dormitory – building 20 – lecture hall  – building 6 –building 7,8 – building 9

B1 and B2 

Building Section –MBA pavilion – building 9 – building 7 – building 6 – building 2 – building 20 – building 5 – building 18 – building 10

Figure 5.5.4 Welfare bus service within Kasetsart University, Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus

The result of using electric bus in providing public transportation within Kasetsart University

Figure 5.5.5 the result of using electric vehicles

1. Reduce air pollution

       The use of electric vehicle, to pick up and drop off students and personnel within Kasetsart University, helps reduce air pollution. Due to the engine does not want the combustion from diesel fuel that cause exhaust carbon dioxide that leads to global warming.

2. Reduce noise pollution

       Electric buses use electric power from batteries to drive which does not use an internal combustion engine. Therefore, it does not cause combustion and the sound of the engine of an electric car is quieter than a car that uses fuel.  It helps reduce noise pollution which will affect teaching and learning of the faculty and students within the university.

3. Reduce costs

       In 2018, Kasetsart University had a cost of fuel purchase USD 57,164,300.74. Later, in 2019, electric vehicles were used instead, which electrical current cost of this kind of renewable power in the amount of USD 14,469,196.26. When compare the use of fuel with electricity, the renewable energy can save the budget. The costs can be reduced by approximately 25%. At the same time, the cost of electric vehicle maintenance tends to decrease. Since there is no engine and there is no need to drain the engine oil. Therefore, it is easier and not too often to maintenance.

 Figure 5.5.6 Comparing of cost of diesel fuel and electricity

Utilities:

       Kasetsart University emphasizes on students’ and staff’s traveling. Therefore, the University determined public transportation policies to provide and support public transportation facilities which is the basic factor in traveling at all levels. With quality, sufficiency, standards and safety, everyone can access and use public transport equally and does not discriminate against general people, disabled people and care taker, Including responsible for organizing the environment easy to access for everyone. 

       Development of a system that responds to a convenient way for students to travel from the university entrance to lecture building, activity yard, library, exercise area and various locations.  Personnel have access to working areas and can travel more conveniently. Including improvement of walking infrastructure and bicycle path. Encouraging students and personnel to use the public transportation which provided by the university. People who comes to contact internal department gets convenience, safety.  It is the maximum benefit of using of area. All these services can covers all areas as much as possible. Therefore, users gets useful in the form of public services such as the design of good public transport systems Including limiting vehicles to not enter the teaching area too much, which will result in insecurity for students, personnel, as well as keeping the physical area from deteriorating.  

Challenges:

       Every campus provides electric vehicle to replace diesel cars for public transportation services on campus, for the transportation of students, faculty, and personnel. Confident of user on safety of using public transportation provided by the university. Obviously, satisfaction of users shows not less than 80%. Besides, being a center for studying and researching the use of electric vehicles in various forms such as the construction of electric charging stations, battery replacement service by robot,  comprehensive management of expired or deteriorated batteries, etc.

Opportunities:

       From 2015 until now, the government has set measures to support the production of electrical cars in Thailand, as a new engine of growth. As well investment promotion in the supply of goods, the stimulation of the domestic market (Demand), preparation of Infrastructure availability, The standardization of electric cars, used battery disposal management and other measures. The said policy encourages the use of electric vehicles in Thailand. To reduce dependence on imported fuels from foreign countries and increase Thailand’s energy usage options. In addition, to create a good environment for people by reducing the exhaust emissions and carbon dioxide gas that will affect the greenhouse gas.

       Therefore, the government’s policy increases the opportunity to use electric cars in public transportation system of Kasetsart University. it is also supported by the Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), which prepares the infrastructure for joint study of the plan to install the electric charging station in the area of Kasetsart University, Sriracha Campus which connects with the industrial estate. That will stimulate the use of alternative energy to the private sector widely.

Remark : All activities in 5.5 refer to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 : Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. Another important target is to reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.

Lesson: Best Practice for Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) policy on campus

       Kasetsart University has a policy to support pollution-free traveling within the university. In addition, the University has promoted the use of vehicles that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and noise pollution for students, personnel, to avoid using various types of cars and turn to use public transportation provided by the university more. Previous operating results compare the cost of fuel used for diesel engine systems and electrical systems.  Figure 5.9.1 compare the cost of fuel used for diesel engine systems and electrical systems.

Collaboration with the private sector to support the use of electric vehicles for service within the university

       A memorandum of cooperation in studying and developing electric vehicles for public in Kasetsart University were signed with MA Power Solutions Company Limited. In addition, the University has received six 21-seat closed electric power system bus with equipment and installing the electric system for an electric charger to the Vehicle, Building and Physical Plant Division for use in Kasetsart University from Siam Commercial Bank Public Company Limited.

Figure 5.9.2 An MOU signing ceremony on study and development of electric vehicles for the public in the tram category

Figure 5.9.3 Electrical buses receiving ceremony from Siam Commercial Bank Public Company Limited

Figure 5.9.4 Six 20-seat electrical air-conditioned buses for students and staff in Kasetsart University

The result of cooperation with the private sector.

       Kasetsart University Bang Khen has an electric 20-seat electric bus with a charging station and has improved the form of internal public transport services from diesel cars to 6 electric buses.  In the first phase, the electric buses was used parallel with diesel cars. The electric buses was received satisfaction from students and staff,  due to the buses do not cause disturbance in teaching and activities of students and faculty, also environmentally friendly.

       According to the goal of Kasetsart University towards becoming a green university, the University provided 15 electric buses with charging stations to replace diesel buses. For the transportation service for students, personnel and people who come to contact to KU’s departments, as well as various central services.  The full services were operated since December 2018. And to build confidence for more safety of users by limiting the speed of the electric buses at 25 – 30 km. /hrs. with the installation of GPS to display in the application QR Code at the 74 welfare bus stop. Users can check the route and various service and current information continuously.

Figure 5.9.5 15 electrical bus service for students and staff in the University

Social Engagement

       The University organized a campaign on launching KU Go Green – electric vehicle welfare service within Kasetsart University to raise awareness of alternative energy to replace high-priced diesel fuel which cause pollution. And emphasized the development policy to be a green university by proceeding to change the form of welfare bus services from the diesel engine system to a total of 21 electric vehicles.

Figure 5.9.6 KU Go Green launching ceremony

       In 2019, the status of a green university has been expanded to various campuses. It became more concrete. An opening ceremony of “Electric vehicle charging station under the electric charging station installation project” was organized by Kasetsart University Sriracha Campus. In addition, launching innovation and a workshop on Innovation of Decentralized Group-Based Battery Energy Management (DBEM) for PV Nanogrid Systems, under the project of Nano Grid Solar Cell Demonstration System with split battery power innovation. The project has been funded by the Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) on 12 July 2019 since then.

Figure 5.9.7 The electric charging station under the electric charging station installation project

       Kasetsart University supports various departments to use electric carts to coordinate within the University instead of cars or motorcycles, for example, General Affairs Division has 2 golf cars, which can be shared with another 7 agencies under the Office of the President namely: Office of the Legal; Office of Quality Assurance; Vehicle, Building and Physical Plant Division; Planning Division; Personnel Division; International Affairs Division; Office of Internal Auditing. These offices are situated at the Kasetsart Golden Jubilee Administration and Information Center Building.

Figure 5.9.8 Using of electric carts to coordinate within the University instead of cars or motorcycles

The result of using electric carts of various departments within Kasetsart University

       The using of electric carts is environmental friendly. It does not combust like diesel engines, causing no air pollution. The other thing, it is quiet when driving because electric carts does not have the sound of accelerating engine. There is no surge when gear-shifting and speeding. Therefore, the electric carts do not annoy students and staff of the University.

Challenges

       The university has a policy to encourage each department to procure electric carts to send documents and coordinate within the university. Every faculty, institution, and campuses are willing to reduce the amount of cars and motorcycles that enter the University. It also reduce pollution and increase safety of students and staff of the University.

       Bicycling for travel is considered environmental friendly. Since there is no air pollution and helps to promote exercise for students and staff. Campaigning activities have been continuously implemented on every campus for students and staff to use bicycles traveling on campus instead of cars or motorcycle. The activities have received good cooperation within KU. Besides, the University and private sector joined in signing agreements, as well as financial support from the government to improve and develop bicycle routes to facilitate and for safety of bicycle users as well.

Figure 5.9.9 Traveling by bicycles in the University

       The “Mobike First Ride in KU” was a cooperation between private sector and Kasetsart University. The purpose was to urge students and staff for using of smart public bicycles in the University. This project was a collaboration with Mobike Company, it introduced a new model of bicycle that has improved a style for strong structure and durable of the bicycle, and seat can be adjusted in many levels for convenient of users. In addition, solar cell panel were installed on the front grille to charge the GPS system and for unlock system. 600 bicycles with 23 service points were provided at Kasetsart University since March 2018.

Figure 5.9.10 Traveling by bicycles in the University

Figure 5.9.11 Bicycle lanes and stop and riding bicycle policy of Bangkhen campus

Organizing a motorcycle activity campaign within Kasetsart University

 Social Engagement

       The university promotes the use of bicycles for travel within KU. As well as, creates environmental awareness to reduce air pollution, fuel saving, and support exercise for health. The Faculty of Fisheries supports apparently policies of Kasetsart University by opening bright sea blue bike lane which is the color of the Faculty of Fisheries. It is 2 kilometers of distance for students, personnel and general public to use this lane.

Figure 5.9.12 A campaigning on using bike lane of the Faculty of Fisheries

Figure 5.9.13 Continuous campaigns on using bicycle in the University

Figure 5.9.14  Bike lane inside Kamphaeng Saen campus

       The White Bicycle project of Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus support students to travel inside the campus by bicycles. The project has began since 2000. There were more than 16,000 students joined this project. Many advantages of this project are such as:

1) Fuel saving by using bicycles instead of motorcycles for traveling, the amount of fuel that can be saved is 15,762 liters per year.

2) The amount of air pollution is reduced in the form of carbon dioxide emissions of 61,472 kilograms of carbon dioxide per year from the use of bicycles instead of motorcycles.

3) The rate of energy consumption of students in the form of calorie burning, which is good for students’ health. Each student can burn 600 kilograms of calories per day. Reducing the risk of various chronic conditions. The results clearly show that Implementation of the White Bike Project of Kasetsart University, Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus has good results in many ways and can promote the use of bicycles to travel sustainably.

       However, the project covers only 1st year students who live in on-campus dormitories. While Year 2-4 students live outside the university and there are no bike paths. This causes obstacle to traveling by bicycle of students. If the bicycle path has been developed to cover the traveling of students, it is expected that the students of Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus would turned to use bicycles for traveling more. This will save energy consumption and cost, and good for students’ health.

Figure 5.9.15 Bicycle riding in Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus

       On the special occasion of Royal Coronation of His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn Phra Vajiraklaochaoyuhua (Rama X) in B.E. 2562. Executives, faculty, personnel and students of Kasetsart University Chalermphakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus joined the cycling activity in honor to His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn Phra Vajiraklaochaoyuhua. The other related activity was planting Yellow Star tree to show their devotion to His Majesty the King on the lawn of the Image Features Varuna Riding on the Mythical Naga Dragon (the symbolic of Kasetsart University, Varuna is the God of rain and righteousness who aspires the fullness of food.) on 7 May 2019.

Figure 5.9.16 Campaign on bicycle riding in Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus

The result of creating Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) policy on campus

       Kasetsart students and staff become aware of reducing of air pollution, fuel saving, and support healthy exercise. As well as feeling part of the activity and appreciate value of environmental protection.  Community around the university can use the area of the university to do activities that are environmental friendly and creating bicycle lanes and pedestrian paths efficiently.

Utility

       Unpolluted traveling within the university, helps reduce the problem of PM2.5 dust which is the part of air and noise pollution. It is also a part of reducing of global warming. In addition, Promoting a project of energy saving and pollution reduction in public transportation service by campaigning to for non-polluting travel. Provide a connection system to facilitate the use of public transport and develop traffic management system that reduce air pollution. Promote the use of clean fuels and alternative fuels, and developing a system for battery disposal from vehicles and solar cells from renewable energy system. These are the measures to create awareness in preserving the environment for students and staff, and the public. It is also supporting government policies.

Challenges

       Development of engine technology, popular car size, Including environmental policy. All affecting the level of efficiency oil consumption. Many countries around the world have set target to car manufacturers for fuel consumption efficiency and to reduce carbon dioxide emission. For example, China has issued a policy that cars sold in the country, will run at a distance of 20 kilometers on average, per 1 liter of fuel in 2020. The European Union is aiming at 24 kilometers per liter by 2021. These requirements are another factor that makes automobile companies rush to invest in developing and selling electric cars. To increase the average fuel efficiency and reduce the average carbon dioxide emissions of cars in their companies. The Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University has a pilot project to use robots to replace batteries of electric cars, in order to achieve safety and precision in calculating various values. It will be a model and community learning source in the future.

Opportunities

       The government has encouraged investment and increasing use of electric cars in Thailand, such as corporate income tax exemption and excise tax reduction for electric vehicle manufacturers that have been promoted by BOI. As well as supporting investments for electric charging stations, etc. Thailand will have 1.2 million PHEV and BEV electric vehicles and 60 electric charging stations nationwide in 2036. According to the current world trend on environmental friendly, Thai automotive industry will change and that is a business opportunity to prepare to cope with the growth of electric vehicles. However, if Kasetsart University is interested in developing Zero Emission Vehicles or has signed a partnership collaboration with the private sector to invest in electric charging stations.  The collaboration can get support from the Board of Investment (BOI), with the right to a 5-year income tax deduction, which encourages the further academic development of the university.

Remark : All activities in 5.9 refer to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 :  Reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.

Total number of Zero Emission Vehicles: 7,329

Total number of regular students: 74,376

Total number of academic and administrative staff: 9,571

Ratio = 0.088

       Kasetsart University supports non-pollution commuting within campuses. The University promotes the use of vehicles that reduce carbon dioxide emission and noise pollution. Students and personnel should avoid using various types of cars and more use public transportation provided by the university. 

       The University changed the form of internal public transport services from diesel engines to electrical power systems which is clean energy and without air and noise pollution.  Various departments have used electric golf carts to coordinate within KU instead of cars or motorcycles. In addition, there is a campaign to use bicycles to travel around. This can help promote exercise for students and personnel continuously as well.

       In the future, there is an idea to manage all teaching areas to be vehicle-free areas. Making a pedestrian street by starting to improve various infrastructure for convenience and safety for traffic. It is more conducive for walking.

Figure 5.11Commuting by bicycle riding and electrical vehicles inside the campuses

Total campus area:  26,743,616 m²

Total parking area: 141,294.98 m²

Ratio parking area =  0.600%

Lesson: Best Practice Traveling by car on campus

       Kasetsart University has created a master plan for the Green University:  Kasetklang Bangkhen 2017 – 2022, in order to clearly define the use of the various internal areas.  This can connect different locations within the university and link to public transportation system outside the university, both buses and sky train which will provide services in the future.  Improving infrastructure conditions will be sustainable for transportation system in the university.

Figure 5.13.1 Map of central parking spaces in Kasetsart University, Bang Khen Campus

       Currently, various parking spaces have been renovated to connect various university entrance gates and public transportation within the university with public waiting point outside the campus and sky train. The purpose is to manage park and ride efficiently. It Is a cost-effective use of resources and helps to limit number of vehicle that will enter to teaching area. Therefore, the university has provided a central parking space at Kasetsart University, Bang Khen Campus.

Figure 5.13.2 Central parking buildings at Bangkhen Campus

Figure 5.13.3 Central parking spaces at Bangkhen Campus

Figure 5.13.4 Parking spaces at various campuses of the University

Figure 5.13.5 Bicycle parking spaces for student and staff inside the University

Result

       Kasetsart University supports non-polluting travel within KU and promotes the use of vehicles that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and noise pollution to students and personnel. Therefore, they should avoid using various types of cars and use public transportation provided by the university instead. In order to urge the parking and riding efficiently.

Utilities

       Management of parking spaces at Kasetsart University to be orderly, safe, save time in parking, convenient to travel to work, and helps limit the access and exit of vehicles in teaching area. The development and improvement of the public utility system to connect all travel routes such as pedestrian paths, bicycle routes, public transport system, etc. will encourage students and personnel to use the said area efficiently and maximize utility.

Challenges

       The next policy of Kasetsart University is the idea to manage all teaching areas to be not allowed vehicle to enter areas and designated as a pedestrian street by starting to improve various infrastructure for convenience and safety of students and personnel. It is comfortable to walk more by managing the parking space to connect between various gates and exits of the university and public transport system within the university and link to public transportation outside and sky train system.  It will be efficiency and standardized security system which is beneficial to the community as a whole.

Remark : All activities in 5.13 refer to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 : Enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries.

Traffic signs and parking management in the University

Figure 5.14.1 traffic management map in the University

Figure 5.14.2 yellow white area, red white area and no parking area in the University

Figure 5.14.3 Traffic signs allow parking only permit and no enter sign

Figure 5.14.4 Various kind of warning signs for driving, banning motorcycles and cars enter and no-parking

Improving traffic routes within KU.

Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus 

       The University considered about traffic safety in Kamphaeng Saen campus, Therefore, has improvement of the traffic route was implemented such as painted traffic line, reflective road stud installing on important routes, checking roads, passages, tunnels as well as strictly traffic rules. Include running a campaign on wearing a helmet for safety driving.

Figure 5.14.5 painting traffic line

Figure 5.14.6 Improvement and repair of bumpy roads

Campaigning on strictly traffic rules

       A collaboration among Security Group of Building and Vehicle Section, Central Services Division; Student Affairs Section, Academic and Student Administration Division; and Traffic Officer of Kamphaeng Saen Police Station set up traffic discipline check-point to strictly enforce traffic rules and wearing a helmet for safety driving since January 2019. 

Figure 5.14.5 Campaigning on strictly traffic rules inside Kamphaeng Saen campus

Public services

       Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) car inspection service by the National Agricultural Machinery Section, Research Management and Academic Services Division, Office of Kamphaeng Saen Campus provided inspection and testing services for cars that use compressed natural gas as fuel (CNG) with the approval of the Department of Land Transport, No. 228-2558. The inspection was conducted by checking the readiness integrity of installed equipment of gas system of the engine, check for leaks of gas tank condition, gas pipes and gas equipment, in order that car users can install gas safely and bring the result of the inspection to pay annual tax. It was a service center for nearby communities.

Figure 5.14.6 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) car inspection service

Lesson: Best Practice for transportation initiatives to decrease private vehicles on campus

Policy on Internal Transport System Management at Kasetsart University 

       Using environmental friendly public transportation will help reduce carbon dioxide emission on campus and to provide welfare bus service in accordance with the GREEN UNIVERSITY policy. The guidelines, according to the policy, for each campus are as follows:

Shuttle/bus campus inside campus and public transportation station

Figure 5.15.1 Shuttle/bus campus inside campus and public transportation station and public transportation station

Figure 5.15.2 15-Electric Tram inside campus

Figure 5.15.3 Six-Electric Shuttle bus campus inside campus

Result

       Environmental friendly transportation system management changes the form of welfare bus service from diesel engine system to tram. 21 electric buses are provided for public transportation service to students, personnel, and the public who come to contact internal departments of KU, for both teaching and learning and academic services. Including organizing of various environmental friendly activities will reduce air pollution and carbon dioxide emission that will affect global warming. This will make a good image for Kasetsart University.

Policy determination to promote every campus to be a green campus

       Kasetsart University has established the project “KU-GREEN CAMPUS HEALTHY COMMUNITY Bicycle” since 2014. It has been implemented until now, with an aim providing a service point of borrow and return bicycles within KU. As well as, physical improvements, route expansion, and landscape improvement throughout the bike lane to ensure safety for users on the road. Ongoing bicycle campaign activities such as the Bicycle for Nisit project (Phi-Hai-Nong), the Bicycle Return to KU project, the White Bicycle project, 21 Years Anniversary of Kasetsart University Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, and the project of Rice Planting on Mother’s Day, Harvesting on Father’s Day of Kasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen Campus, etc. the details were as follows:

Free to rent bicycle on campus 

       A campaign to promote students and staff to ride bicycles on campus instead of using cars or motorcycle, this campaign conducted in all campuses and get good cooperation from both inside KU departments and the private sector.  As well as signing agreement and financial support from the government to improve and develop bicycle lanes to provide convenience and safety for bicycle users.

Figure 5.15.4  Free to rent bicycle on campus

Figure 5.15.5 MoBike

Figure 5.15.6 Bicycle paths on campus and the surrounding area

Car sharing

Figure 5.15.7 Car sharing haupcar

Electric vehicle charging station
– Kasetsart University Bang khen

Figure 5.15.8 Electric vehicle charging station

– Kasetsart University Sriracha Campus Chonburi province

Figure 5.15.9 Electric automotive charging station under the project of installing electric charging stations for buses, trams and cars

Using the electrical carts of various departments to coordinate within KU

       Supporting various departments to use electric golf carts to coordinate within KU instead of car or motorcycle. It helps reduce air and noise pollution, not causing annoyance or disturbing teaching and learning of faculty staff and students.

Figure 5.15.10 Using the electrical carts of various departments to coordinate within KU

Encouraging students and staff walking inside Kasetsart University

       The university promotes the use of pedestrian paths on campus for students and staff, as well as improving pedestrian paths to be more shady, clean, and safer.

Figure 5.15.11 The use of pedestrian areas in the University

Figure 5.15.12 Walkway up to building designed for disabled and elderly

Results

       Environment of various parts in every campus of Kasetsart University was improved to have an atmosphere that supports learning and teaching of students and faculty staff. This supports living of students and staff to have well-being. It’s a nice community with safe crossing and sufficient lighting to ride bicycles for it is safe for walking and biking, etc.

Utilities

       It is good an opportunity for students, staff, and general public to have access to public services which provided by the university. This will be integrated methods to solve many problems and effectively limit a numbers of vehicles entering and exiting the university.

Challenge

       Commute of student and staff are not yet connected as a whole system, which the university has accelerated to improve the infrastructure to cover all areas for convenience and safety of students and staff.

Chance

       The university’s policy is to encourage all departments of campuses to organize ongoing campaign activities. As well as students and staff are becoming aware and pay more attention to environmental protection. This will benefit cooperation in the implementation of policies and the future direction of the university towards GREEN UNIVERSITY.

Remark : All activities in 5.15 refer to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 :  Provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.

Lesson: Best Practice Pedestrian path policy on campus

       According to, Kasetsart University has set vision and strategy for development of Kasetsart University for 12 years (2017 – 2571), with the goal of developing Kasetsart University to be strong as “University of the Knowledge of the Land” continuously and sustainably by connecting with agriculture science which is the foundation of the university. As well as integrates the science of the King, community and international knowledge to combine in academic creativity which will lead to be top university. The six aspects is consisting of:

(1)  Green University

(2)  Digital University 

(3)  Research University

(4)  World Class University

(5)  Social Responsibility University 

(6)  Happiness University

       Therefore, in response to the said policy, the university has developed a public utilities system to facilitate the traffic safety for students, faculty staff, personnel and general public. Building a landscape and facilities is conducive the University to be Happiness University and Green University.

Figure 5.16.1 Managing places to be shady and safe for traveling within KU

Figure 5.16.2 Site map Walking directions Bike path bus routes and bus stops in Kasetsart University

Organizing walking and running activities within Kasetsart University

Social Engagement 

       Kasetsart University regularly organizes internal walking-running activities on a monthly basis. It promotes the use of sidewalks and roads in Kasetsart University and to raise awareness of health care.  Each activity has included activities to reduce global warming in order to emphasize the green campus of Kasetsart University, such as the Wednesday Hansa (Delighted Wednesday) project. The University organizes walking-running activities for students, activity personnel, organized every Wednesday from 17.00 hrs. – 18.00 hrs. The Sports Office provides drinking water for participants and campaigning to add more drinking water by using flasks, bottles or glass instead of a single-used bottles to reduce the use of plastic and it is environmental friendly.

Figure 5.16.3 Organizing walking-running activities within Kasetsart University

Table 1 Schedule for healthy walking-running activities within Kasetsart University During October 2018 – September 2019

Table 2 Continuing activities for healthy walking-running in Kasetsart University

The result of organizing walking and running and cycling activities in Kasetsart University

       KU administrators, personnel, and students join the project in walking and running to realize and promote the importance of appropriate exercise for health and encourage the administrators, personnel, and KU students to walk, run continuously. In addition, there are additional activities related to the campaign to reduce plastic use in the university, in order to create mindful of environmental carefulness regularly. Including make the community a better environment because of walking, running and cycling are environmentally friendly.

The use of pedestrian areas in the University

Figure 5.16.4 The use of pedestrian areas in the University

Area improvement in front of the Faculty of Economics Kasetsart University: The Faculty of Economics supports student activities by improving the landscape in front of Building 1 to increase living space for students to do various activities. And will be opened for the first time for graduates and masters on October 6, 2019, the rehearsal day for the Graduation Ceremony of the Faculty of Economics.

Figure 5.16.5 Area improvement in front of the Faculty of Economics Kasetsart University

       Kamphaeng Saen Campus considered the safety of traveling in the campus. Therefore, there is improving of traffic routes by line painting; reflective road stud installing on important routes; checking of road condition, passages, and tunnels; as well as using of traffic rules strictly. Campaign running for students and staff to wear helmets for safety while driving vehicles. It is an accident prevention for both oneself and the community as a whole.

Figure 5.16.6 Improving traffic routes within KU

Figure 5.16.7 Prohibition of motorbikes and cars entering and no parking signs

Improvement of areas and facilities for disabled and elderly

       According to, the Ministerial regulations regarding on providing facilities in the building for disabled, handicapped, and elderly in 2005. Each campus of Kasetsart University renovated and reconstructed teaching and learning building of the campuses. The University has designed a living space to provide convenience for disabled, handicapped, and elderly such as space renovating, safety materials setting, tactile surface installing, and creating symbols and marks for disabled indicating the way to facilities for disabled and elderly. These facilities assist the disabled and the elderly to be able to use the buildings and pedestrian areas in every campus of Kasetsart University. 

Figure 5.16.8 Walkways, school buildings and other facilities designed for the disabled and the elderly

Result

       Staff and students use more pedestrian paths. The scenery around the bike lane and pedestrian paths are shady, convenient, and safe. This is not only affecting the quality of life, teaching and learning but also creating good relationships between Kasetsart University and general public in sharing space that of provided by the Univesity.

Utilities

       According to the National Education Act B.E. 2542, “Section 25 :  the State shall adequately and efficiently promote operation  and establishment of lifelong learning of all types, namely public  libraries, museums, art galleries, zoos, public parks, botanical gardens,  science and technology parks, sport and recreation centres, data sources, and other sources of learning.”

       For this reason, Kasetsart University uses public areas on the campus for many benefits, aside from working hours of students and staff, by allowing general public to use the route for walking and biking in the evening. In addition, people from communities nearby also use many common areas such as bicycle routes and pedestrian paths to carry out health activities, etc. Such actions are in response to government policy on improving various areas within the university to be used effectively. The place is shady for walking and jogging, and suitable for promoting physical activity for students, personnel and general public. Moreover, connecting all various kind of travel and safe for pedestrian. Furthermore, the use of electric vehicles does not cause pollution in the university,  reduce fuel consumption, and reduce global warming.

challenge

       Kasetsart University has set travel policies by determining to be a pedestrian street. Therefore, the University built a covered walkway to connect walkways around buildings and encourage faculty staff and students to commute by walking to various buildings more conveniently and safely, restrict vehicle types which passing through the teaching area, specifying one-way lanes for welfare bus service, dividing road space for pedestrian and bicycles, and installing a motorcycle barrier to prevent pedestrian riding. 

       Cars and motorcycles of faculty staff,  students and personnel are not allow to enter and exit the teaching and learning area strictly, in order to prevent accident and various unsafe situations that occur.  In the first phase, a one-way lane has been established for the welfare buse services for students and personnel, divide the lanes for bicycles, and using traffic pole parallel to the road. Later, improve  sidewalks, with a roof to cover all areas, all buildings etc.

Obstacles

       At present, external factors are an obstacle the successful implementation of the university’s policy. Due to the construction of BTS SkyTrain (the electric mass transit railway system) routes outside the Univesity, Bangkhen campus has multiple entrances and exits, to facilitate people who travel around the university. Therefore, many routes inside the University need to be a vehicle vent path from outside.  This helps reduce traffic congestion during rush hour.  Therefore, the said issue is not allowing the implementation of the said policy is fully effective.

Opportunities

       When the BTS Skytrain constuction is completed. Both within and external traveling within Kasetsart University will be able to develop, improve, and connect fully. Parking spots on the campus can connect trams or electric buses. The budget allocation for the year 2020 for the improvement of walking and bike paths. Students can use bicycles safely or can follow the covered way which designed to be shady and pleasant. That will help promote a safe atmosphere for university living.

Figure . 5.16.9 Happiness University

Remark : All activities in 5.16 refer to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 :  Provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.

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