Kasetsart University realized the importance of wastes treatment which arising from various activities at the university and a lot of waste occurred from that. Recycle is one of the factors of sustainability in environmental conservation thus the University has urged both students and staff to share responsibility for environmental conservation. The University initiated projects and organized activities related to waste treatment and recycling such as recycling of toxic waste, organic waste treatment, inorganic waste treatment, waste disposal process Include policies to reduce paper and plastic consumption on campus
The Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs, also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all united nation members. The SDGs are integrated, universal and transformative—that is, they recognize action in one area that will affect outcomes in others, and development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. Simultaneously, UI GreenMetric World University Ranking is one of the most important organizations which believes that many universities around the world have strong efforts to implement environmentally friendly and sustainable policies and programs. In 2019, the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking has the major important topic which involves the SDGs “Sustainable University in a Changing World: Lessons, Challenges and Opportunities”. The subtopics can be described from Kasetsart University’s concepts as following: Lessons–This suite of lessons looks at the environmental threats to the planet and provides plenty of involving interactive tasks to help people in community understand how they can live more sustainable lives. Particularly, the lesson is defined as one of the most significant procedure to transform the community. Hence, the lesson is one of the most important practices that the university always realizes. Challenges– – Basically, sustainable development is a long- term solution to how the university plans indefinite progress in the future without causing damage to the environment so as to guarantee a safe habitat for the next generations who will continue to develop their economies, societies, and care for the environment with a similar ideal in mind. This satisfies the needs without sabotaging the opportunities of others. The concept covers a broad scope of matters such as environmental, social, and economic development which continues to prove its importance in our lives as it affects all aspects of them. The challenges are so necessary in current environment and they can help in living a more conscious and altruistic life. Kasetsart University has an effort to conduct knowledge resources by integrating with agricultural, environmental management and so on. Opportunities— The Sustainable Development Goals present a unique and critical challenge for universities around the world. But they’ re also bringing to light some of the biggest investment opportunities in a generation. There are big opportunities for purposeful development in the universities’ community. By finding better solutions to some of the challenges which are not only helping to achieve the SDGs; they are also opening up substantial growth opportunities, because they are meeting an unmet need and tapping into long- term demand drivers. From the three significant subtopics are the university’s intentions which are steadily and regularly concerned to construct identity of community in Kasetsart University. As it was mentioned earlier, Kasetsart University has intentionally concerned in what the world has being faced and what the university have to necessarily do. Continuously, there are many university’ s policies that relate to enhance quality living of all people in the university and community around us. The mentioned policies earlier, they are called “Three Paradigms of Transformation” which are the main concerns for developing the university. The paradigms are the key elements to integrate people’ s cooperation surroundings the community and in Kasetsart University. Firstly, the first paradigm is determined as “ Public Service” which is a significant service intended to serve all members of the community. Latterly, the second paradigm relates to “Social Engagement” which includes activity, interaction, social exchange, and lack of compulsion. The university has built the continuum of community commitment to develop this paradigm such as transactional, transitional and transformational engagement. And the last paradigm is defined as “Agricultural Innovation” which means working process with leading agricultural researchers, businesses, landowners, and farmers to develop the knowledge and technologies that will make modern farming more sustainable, resilient, and productive. Through practical and interactive workshops, farm walks, and on- farm demonstrations, this will help the community to put knowledge into practice. Furthermore, Kasetsart University always realize in constructing a happy, vibrant community, and also making strong social connections that create a sense of belonging. And along with belonging comes a sense of responsibility to support each other. With a strong sense of belonging and knowing other community members will take care of each other comes a sense of peace, security, and meaning. Consequently, the “Three Paradigms of Transformation” are the major factors that can be seen in Kasetsart University’ s activities.
Kasetsart University initiated a waste recycling campaign, in order to guide students, staff, and communities near the university to separate wastes and realize the importance of recycling. In addition, to respond to society needs, the university urge everyone to know how to reasonable using of resources. The university looked for benefits from using of waste materials by upcycling-the process of converting waste materials or products that cannot be used in the same way into new products with higher quality and value. Besides, using cloth bags instead of plastic bags to help reduce the amount of plastic bags. This project is popular in society and various media that have campaigned widely. Kasetsart University has continuously organized activities within the university to focus on the campaign to reduce global warming also reduce the amount of waste in offices and industries. There are also the Green Roof project of Tetra Pak (Thailand) Co., Ltd. and the Recycle For New Hope project under the Green Roof project for Friends in Need (Pa) Volunteer Foundation are campaigns to separate used beverage boxes and recycle into roof sheets, given to people who suffer from natural disasters and community that is still lacking. It also supports sustainable environmental management processes.
Kasetsart University has promoted many new innovation enhancements. For example, the upcycling program has created value from waste materials. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Singh Intrachooto, ITAP program expert and head of the expert panel, Environmental Design Center, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University has launched operation of the upcycling project to create the value of waste materials by designing (Upcycling: Value Creation with Design). The project has accordingly created the products from waste materials, such as egg shells, and research the use of waste by combining both science and art concepts. The “EMARBLE” is an innovative construction material from egg shells. The material was made from the cooperation of designers and scientists (Art and Science) focusing on practical usage which can be molded into constructed materials that can produce various kinds of furniture. The Faculty of Architecture has designed and developed “AKU Upcycling” to emphasise the sufficiently use of existent resources by developing leftover materials into new value of products, both in design and commercial. In addition, using the leftover plastic from shipbuilding to re- create a reading tables and chairs for students. All of these creation is considered as part of the encouragement to create products that refer to friendly environmental and social responsibility.
The green roof project has screened boxes of UHT milk and beverages and recycle through the creating process into many different materials. All components such as paper, plastic and aluminum foil can be recycled. The roof made of the milk box is durable, flexible also fire resistant but not heavy structures for construction. A roof sheet measures 1 x 2.40 meters uses approximately 2,000 beverage boxes in production.
[Figure 3.1.2] Table and chairs set made of left over plastic from shipbuilding
Kasetsart University has promoted many new innovations. For example, upcycling will create value from waste materials. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Singh Intrachooto, ITAP program expert and head of the expert panel, Environmental Design Center, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University has Joined operation of the upcycling project to creates value for waste materials by design (Upcycling: Value Creation with Design). The project jointly creates products from waste materials, such as egg shells, and research the use of waste to create works by combining both science and art concepts. The “EMARBLE” is an innovative construction material from egg shells. This material made from the cooperation of designers and scientists (Art and Science) focus on practical usage which can be molded into construction materials. It can produces various kinds of furniture. The Faculty of Architecture designed “AKU Upcycling” to emphasize the sufficiently valuable use of resources by developing leftover materials into new value products, both in design and commercial. In addition, using the left over plastic from shipbuilding to re-create a reading table and chairs set for students. All of these creation is considered as part of the encouragement to create products that responds to environmental friendly and with social responsibility.
The green roof project has screened boxes of UHT milk and beverages and recycle through the creating process into many different materials. All components such as paper, plastic and aluminum foil can be recycled. The roof made of the milk box is durable, flexible also fire resistant. It is not a heavy structures for construction. A roof sheet measures 1 x 2.40 meters uses approximately 2,000 beverage boxes in production.
[Figure 3.1.3] Table and chairs set made of left over plastic from shipbuilding, Environmental friendly trash bin, Table made from industrial wastes.
Kasetsart University encourages students and university personnel to understand the process of sorting waste from the beginning, learn to classify waste correctly and campaign to use cloth bags Instead of plastic bags to reduce the amount of plastic bags. Organizing internal activities within campuses of Kasetsart in order to understand and solve problems related to global warming. The University also invite students and staff todonate milk boxes for the green roof project.
[Figure3.1.4] CEE Weste Bank
[Figure 3.1.5] A campaign of using cloth bag (made from vinyl banners of Kaset Fair event)
[Figure 3.1.6] Using as gifts for visitors as a campaign of using cloth bag
On the occasion of Kasetsart University graduation ceremony in 2019, the University proposed the idea of intangible gift giving through eyes and smiles in order graduates and students did not spend money extravagantly on presents. There were no luxury items, no balloons (because when the balloon float over the electric wire and may cause electric shock and the electric power turn off all over the campus). The hashtag “#KUnowaste” and “#KU Graduation Gift” were campaigned to reduce wastes in this event. The Faculties’executives joined together as the presenters for this campaign. The campaign on using of cloth bags, stop using foam, recycle & reuse and green roofs from UHT milk boxes were run to all part of Kasetsart University in order to advised everyone to understand and help solve problems related to global warming. The University aims at to become “Zero Waste” university by not increase the amount of waste in the university. All waste will be managed and recycled as much as possible.
Vertical Recycle Box
There are 6 compartments for recycling materials, with a lid made of acrylic. With sound and light systems, with Solar Power system. The cabinet is made of durable fiberglass materials. There is a push button which consumes approximately 0.02 units of energy per time. Use only 0.6 square meters of space. Use begins with the push of a button. Vertical Recycle Box (VRB) cabinet will display a speech, explain the separation and provide environmental knowledge, and energy-saving LED lamps will work to stimulate interest and provide light, then open the ceiling. Cabinet put recyclable materials into the compartment as explained by Vertical Recycle Box (VRB) cabinet.
Help promote the campaign as follows
Agricultural Innovation The VRB cabinet will display a speech, explain the separation and provide environmental knowledge, and energy-saving LED lamps will work to stimulate interest and provide light, then open the ceiling. Cabinet put recyclable materials into the compartment as explained by the VRB cabinet. Help promote the campaign Reducing waste in the community Reduce storage load Increase utilization of recycled materials Increase the use of renewable energy (solar) Increase sales revenue for recycled materials Increase the use of knowledge from waste separation and environmental knowledge. And increase the quality of the good environment for the community.
[Figure 3.1.7] Vertical Recycle Box
At present, Thailand still has a lot of waste. Kasetsart University is aware of waste problems. Therefore, the university finds way to reduce waste in order to reduce costs of waste disposal. Promoting to separate of waste for recycling will be a good solution for society. In addition, it can also be recycled and add value for that piece of waste. The campaign on zero waste reduction policy and #KU Graduation Gift 2019 through the eyes and smiles will greatly reduce the amount of luxury items and the waste separation policy from the source will definitely reduce the amount of waste in the future.
Every activities are afford of Kasetsart University to build awareness of students and staff to realize the problem and unfavorable effect of wastes and find the better improvement. Recycling projects will enable us to recycle everything and reduce the use of resources. Besides, using resources wisely is the government’s policy as well. However, if proper management is carried out from the source of waste. It will be more efficient. Everyone has to help each other by using the 3Rs or 3Res Principles to reduce the amount of waste that is generated.
Reuse – to use less or use only when necessary
Reduce– repeat use to reduce the amount of waste
recycle – bring back to produce new thing to use again
Remark : All activities in 3.1 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 12 : Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
Kasetsart University is aware of the environmental importance. Therefore, the university has a policy to reduce the use of paper and plastic. The important thing is to build awareness for students and community to use resources suitably and reducing the amount of paper used. The university has used technology to increase convenience, speed and reduce work flow. For example, using QR codes to search for books in library either internal or external user that can be used easily as well. In addition, using of electronical operating systems and sending email for memo and public relations news and using of double-sided paper in order to to reduces the amount of paper. Both using double-sided paper and technology can reduce 5% of using from the previous year. Reducing plastic is also an important factor that the university is promoting. For example, at Kaset Fair 2019, the university provided cloth bags for lending to shopping in order to reduce the use of plastic bags and also using of food containers which made from banana leaf instead of plastic and foam. The policy of reducing plastic volume will soon be 100% successful throughout the university.
[Figure 3.2.1] Program to reduce the use of paper and plastic on campus
Products from waste materials
Currently, the problem of burning weeds, waste, and agricultural waste leads to environmental pollution. Especially the dry leaves that cause smog pollution. Associate Professor Songklod Jarusombat and research team. Conducted studies on the use of dried leaves for use Created a view that would add value to the leaves This research allows us to increase the value of leaves that are not useful and important is Reduce the matter of haze that occurs in the north of Thailand. The use of dried leaves to create value is another option for career enhancement and is also a solution that helps reduce the haze problem.
Kasetsart University aware of the importance of good environment. Therefore, the university has a policy to reduce the use of paper and plastic. The important thing is to build awareness for students and personnel to use resources suitably and reducing the amount of paper used. The university therefore uses dried leaves to use. To increase the value from leaves for the villagers.
[Figure 3.2.2] Products from waste materials
Kasetsart University realizes the important management of information and communication technology. Therefore, every department of the University has developed an operating system that will be used instead of paper to reduce work flow, organize an electronic office system, and develop internet and website systems in order to use system as a way to present knowledge, Information and communication between departments. The benefit of the above systems will save time, budget, manpower, and reduce work procedures. It also responds to government policies that require electronic management system.
Innovation of banana leaf krathong (food container) machines
Mrs. Nonglak Lekrungroenggid, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at Kamphaeng Saen innovated food container from banana leafs instead of plastic and foam. This innovation was displayed at various events which received great interest and was extended method by the use of palm leaves including teak leafs that fell from the tree then molded into a krathong from leaf fragments.
The other problem of food packaging products used in daily life, especially the use of foam boxes for food packaging which is a risk of accumulating toxins in the body. Kasetsart University considered that foam or plastic is an important issue that directly affects environment. Therefore, campaigning to use non-hazardous food packaging materials as a replacement was organized, and set up promotional signs at cafeterias, restaurants, and beverage shops in various buildings. According to the University’s policy, Kasetsart University aware of the importance of reducing the amount of single use plastic. Therefore, the University cooperated with entrepreneurs in campuses on giving a discount to buyer who bring his/her own food container.
The “SCI KU GO ZERO WASTE WITH KM PACKAGING”, a pilot project on 100% stop using foam and plastic, is collaborated between Kasetsart University and K.M. Packaging Co. Ltd. This project responds to the government’s policy to stop using foam and plastic packaging 100% , in order to reduce plastic wastes and foams. It can reduce more than 4.5 hundred thousand pieces per year. Kaset Fair (agricultural fair) 2019 was the first event for launching biodegradable packaging.
Working through electronic media and online system can help public relations activities faster and convenient. Reducing the amount of paper as well.
One of most important problem on the global warming has been caused by plastic waste. The relation between the use of plastic bags and global warming is, the more plastic bags are used increasing of the amount of carbon dioxide of combustion which occurred from plastic production include destroying of plastic bags increase as well. when it is released into the earth’s atmosphere. For this reason, currently, there are many campaigns to use cloth bags instead of plastic bags. Kasetsart University considers the sustainability of environmental protection, therefore, the campaign in using cloth bags instead of plastic bags so as to avoid cause of problem.
Kasetsart University pay attention to the global trend about increasingly amount of waste. It is an opportunity to find ways to reduce the amount of wastes and waste disposal management. These following methods, could be help because it is easy, convenient, fast and save paper as well:
– Reducing the use of paper in the campuses
– Use the second page paper
– The use of technology systems for work such as Email and electronic system
– Searching information by QR quote scanning
– Using social media to publicize all the news
In addition to that, Kasetsart University is very interested in reducing the amount of plastic. The university has a campaign to promote and request cooperation from all sectors to reduce the amount of plastic waste which the University has both external and internal cooperation. Evidently, Kasetsart University cooperated with K.M. Packaging Co. Ltd. launched the “SCI KU GO ZERO WASTE WITH KM PACKAGING”, a pilot project on 100% stop using foam and plastic. This project responds to the government’s policy to stop using foam and plastic packaging 100%, in order to reduce plastic wastes and foams and the innovative biodegradable packaging was launched for the first time in Kaset Fair (agricultural fair) 2019.
Natural food containers, made from banana leafs and betel nut rinds, is beautiful, durable, environmental friendly and can be used instead of plastic and foam. To this point, Kasetsart has set a campaign to preserve the environment to be sustainable for the future by using the said natural products instead of plastic and foam. Therefore, KU invites everyone to participate in this campaign.
Remark : All activities in 3.2 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 12 : Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources. And substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
At present, the problem of the amount of waste is increasing and unable to immediately eliminate, often causing the accumulation of waste and environmental problems. More than 50 percent of the waste is scraps of vegetables, fruits, and weeds. Therefore, the organic waste is composted into fertilizer so that changing the burden to be valued add. As well as helping to reduce problems occurring in the waste-management system and the cost of waste management operations. Also reducing the amount of waste that needs to be disposed, resulting in less landfill.
Currently, Kasetsart University has research related to bringnature to take part in organic waste treatment. The University has brought the Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSF) to eliminate organic waste. It is also found that the Black Soldier Fly Larvae plays an important role in decomposing food waste, wet waste, and animal dung, including rotten wood chips. In this regard, more than 70% of organic waste will be efficient removed by Black Soldier Fly Larvae. The University has transferred this knowledge to the community, so that the communities nearby to the university can apply method for waste disposal.
From this research proved that the Black Soldier Fly Larvae are not carrier of disease, not a pest, and does not cause annoyance to the community. In addition, the organic waste that has been degraded from the BSF can be used as fertilizers. This type of worm can help digest organic waste quickly. Therefore, it is a way to reduce environmental problems by transforming organic waste into compost. It is rich in nutrients that plants need and the adult Black Soldier Fly Larvae are high in protein, omega fats, dietary fiber, high calcium and lauric acid. Therefore, they are suitable to be used as animal feed. The Black Soldier Fly Larvae project is not only being able to solve the waste problem but also can solve the problem of poverty for the community. Because the BSF can make money for the communities around Kasetsart University and are also needed by many outside communities throughout the country.
Biogas and liquid fertilizer production project is a project to manage organic waste, in the form of food waste from restaurants within the university. which is promoted as a source of learning and research for students and personnel, as well as being used for plant and soil maintenance.
The Composting in a Beautiful Garden project can help to reduce the amount of organic waste, such as twigs and leaves by landfill. The stick scraps and leaf scraps will be composed to be fertilizer and use for soil maintenance and for plants on campuses.
[Figure 3.3.4] Scrap leaves and twigs to ferment to make fertilizer
Making of bio-fermented water from rotten fish The Landscape and Environment Mission Unit has brought dead fish that was killed inside the pond, mince thoroughly, add super bionic-2, and ferment until proper. When the period is over, the fermented water is sprayed on trees.
Utilization of weeds by using weed chippers (woodworking machinery) Weeds are good manure and can also be fermented into fertilizer. In order to, add nutrients to soil. Also, when the fermentation process takes the right time, it will generate methane gas which can be used as a substitute heat energy for cooking.
Making compost from cow excrement The cow dung which is abundant from 200 cows on the farm of Kasetsart University. The cows will give approximately 2,400 kilograms of fresh dung per day or a total of 72,000 kilograms in a month. This can be fermented into pellet fertilizer and it can also be sold to interested parties as well.
Production of liquid fertilizer from pig manure Is the use of pig manure through the process and technology to be high efficiency manure for increasing crop yields Able to add value to pig manure In which the production of liquid fertilizer from pig manure per year Will use 7 tons of dry pig manure, can be processed into 12,000 liters of concentrated pig manure extract (liquid fertilizer) which is distributed to the community.
Dry and liquid compost bin It is an academic service project, a network development project to strengthen community for problem management in the eastern region. It is a compost bin for weed and food waste. The bin is a tough well-molded plastic, with a lid to open for organic waste with a vent cone for the air to circulate inside the bin and has a thick base. It That can open the bottom of the bin to use fertilizer, and has a drainage from fermentation. The volume is approximately 120 liters. The wet waste and food waste can be fermented with EM microbes. After fermentation, the bin will give liquid fertilizer which can be utilized in households and agricultural areas.
Production of compost from palm leaves Obtained from fallen palm leaves Or by cutting various branches of dried palm leaves Bring the dried palm leaves to the shrubbery. To make it smaller Then mixed up with dry cow dung in the proportion of 3 to 1 volume Palm leaf fermentation Fill water by attaching a sprinkler to the fertilizer pile. Microbial EM to be a catalyst for degradation Control humidity to be sufficient Use a tractor to turn over the compost pile every 30 days. After 5 months, the compost will be decomposed. The bag can be packaged for use in soil structure adjustment or as a mixed planting soil.
Kasetsart University has many areas that are used as experimental plots to grow rice for research. And will buy paddy from farmers to paint, bag, as well as being a distribution center to consumers to choose good rice varieties Quality directly from farmers Therefore, the university has a rice mill under supervision. In the paddy milling process, the leftover areas such as rice husks, straw, etc., which are left behind, account for 30% of the total rice milling process. Therefore, the unused portion is to be reused. Especially fertilizer And brought back to use for testing rice planting again.
Water Hyacinth Eradication Water hyacinth is a quick-grown plant that can be adapted to be durable in all water conditions. Therefore, spread quickly along the river. Until now it has become a serious weed in the water source. It polluted water, ecosystems and obstructing water flow. Dr. Arm Unartngam from the Department of Science. Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science and Dr. Jintana Unartngam from the Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University. Kamphaeng Saen Campus, as researchers of the project, agreed that, the elimination of water hyacinths is often preferable to manual scooping by labor with invented machinery. which requires a lot of time and budget. It had to do continuously but found that still unable to control the spread of water hyacinth. The concept of disposal is to control the propagation of water hyacinths using biological methods by using the fungus to destroy water hyacinths. This will cause abnormalities or diseases and cannot grow and propagate. It is a natural eradication to use living organisms to control other living things.
Organic waste disposal well The using of cement is concerned for disposal of organic waste in various households which compost organic fertilizer from leaves, twigs, branches, and all organic waste to ferment in the well. The mineral nutrients for plants come out and this can be used to replace fertilizer. In addition, it is also beautiful for landscape which can contain waste 600 kilograms per day.
Kasetsart University has managed various projects such as biogas and liquid fertilizer production project, making of bio-fermented water from rotten fish, and making compost from cow excrement. In order to transfer knowledge and solutions to fix the problem of a large amount of organic waste disposal to the villagers in the community. It is not only to reduce waste but also a cost saving for purchasing of fertilizer.
The Black Soldier Fly Larvae project is a project that helps to eliminate organic waste at the source. It is also found that the Black Soldier Fly Larvae play an important role in decomposing food waste, wet waste, animal waste, including rotting wood chips. The university has transferred the knowledge to the community to apply for waste disposal in nearby communities around the campuses. This worm can help digest organic waste quickly. Therefore, it is a way to reduce environmental problems and transform organic waste into compost that is rich in nutrients that plants need. Besides, the organic waste disposal well project is the use of cement ponds for disposal of organic waste in the household. It will get fermented water with plant nutrients for use as a substitute for fertilizer, also beautiful for landscape. The water hyacinth eradication is the discovery of how to get rid of water hyacinths by using of organisms to control living organisms themselves. The method using the fungus to destroy water hyacinths cause abnormalities or diseases and cannot grow and propagate. The fungus will be put in the spray machine then sprayed on water hyacinth leaves in the area that needs to be eliminated.
Dry and liquid compost bin is an academic service project, a network development project to strengthen community to solve problems in the eastern region. It is a bin to put organic waste such as weed and food waste with a lid to open. The bin can open at the bottom to use fertilizer after composting. Dry fertilizer is obtained from compost process. Wet waste can be fermented with EM microbes. After fermentation, liquid fertilizer can be utilized in households and agricultural areas. Kasetsart University has made fermentation tanks of dry and liquid fertilizer for many departments.
Water hyacinth is a research that can help many communities. Currently, Kasetsart University also collaborates with various organizations and communities around Kasetsart University to eliminate water hyacinths. Which works very well And the removal area is enlarged every day, such as Don Tum Subdistrict, Bang Len District, Nakorn Pathom Province Chiang Rak Noi Subdistrict Chiang Rak Noi Subdistrict Pathum Thani Province, Bang Pa-in District Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, Sikan Subdistrict, Don Mueang District, Bangkok Can be injected without labor or machinery for loading Which will help reduce costs And a large amount of budget.
Kasetsart University wants to encourage students and communities to learn about organic waste treatment. Organic waste can be used for many projects. Research and development can be further extended to many organic waste treatments. In addition, reducing the amount of waste, can also create more organic products. Many projects can help and solve problems for communities around Kasetsart University as well. Organic waste disposal well project was built from cement. that was the treatment of organic waste from household. If every house in the community knows this system, they will reduce the amount of organic waste in the community. Organic waste disposal well can also be a source of minerals for vegetables which grow in the household for consumption.
It is an opportunity for Kasetsart University to develop a project about organic waste. For example, participating activities and projects to help community outside the University such as the Black Soldier Fly Larvae Project, Dry and liquid compost bin, the Composting in a Beautiful Garden project, making of bio-fermented water from rotten fish, utilization of weeds by using weed chippers (woodworking machinery), making compost from cow excrement, biogas and liquid fertilizer production project, and organic waste disposal well. As the mentioned projects have seriously collaborated the university with community by nurturing knowledge, income and expenditure.
Remark : All activities in 3.3 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 1 : End poverty in all its forms everywhere, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
Each method of waste management has their advantages and disadvantages. Determining which method to choose requires various relevant components, namely the amount of waste generated, the type of waste, the characteristics of waste, tools, equipment, buildings, facilities, cooperation of students and personnel, benefits, and waste properties. The garbage whichis disposed each day consists of various types of waste. Inorganic waste is one of waste type that Kasetsart University emphasis on management. due to increase of various activities occurring within the university. That is, inorganic waste is increasing as well. Therefore, there is inorganic waste management in various departments. In order to reduce the amount of inorganic waste that is to be landfilled as well.
The green roof project
The green roof project has screened boxes of UHT milk and beverages and recycled through the creating process into many different materials. All components such as paper, plastic and aluminum foil can be recycled. The made roof from milk box is durable, flexible also fire resistant. The materials of construction are not heavy. A roof sheet measures 1 x 2.40 meters uses approximately 2,000 beverage boxes in production. These kind of innovation were donated to Friends in Need (Pa) Volunteer Foundation for social benefit.
The Green Roof project is supporting waste separation to recycle, such as binging used milk cartons to produce into the roof to donated to Friends in Need (Pa) Volunteer Foundation, the Thai Red Cross, which the foundation will give to communities in need to repair broken roofs of, such as houses, school, to be able to use as usual.
The recyclable roof uses the unused beverage boxes by welding the boxes with proper heat. After the boxes were consumed, can also be used to create a roofing sheet as well. The 1 x 2.40 meters roof will use about 2,000 beverage boxes in production. The qualifications of the roof are durable, not easily broken, fire resistant, not required heavy materials for construction, not absorbed sun and heat, energy-saving, free from mold, and easily repaired.
Kasetsart University, in collaboration with Tetra Pak (Thailand) Co., Ltd., a leading company in the production and packaging process for food and beverages, together with the Big C Supercenter Public Company Limited; Recycling Beverage Box Center of Fiber Pattana Co., Ltd.; and the Department of Environmental Quality Promotion, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, which are committed to implementing a campaign to support separation, storage, and recycle used beverage boxes for maximum success.
[Figure 3.4.1] The green roof project
Reusing old water trucks
Reusing old water trucks by being repaired by a skilled technician. It is possible to reduce costs instead of buying a new water truck.
Kasetsart University has brought old water trucks that are not being used to repair. Aside from helping to reduce the cost of buying a new truck, it also helps reduce waste. The personnel of Kasetsart University, who have knowledge and expertise, were the repairers of this type of water truck. They repaired it able to be used again. It is another way to recycle waste to use again. In addition, increasing the number of cars that can be used, such as watering plants, washing roads, etc. which are more useful in providing sufficient public services.
[Figure 3.4.2] Reusing old water trucks
Product or material development project from waste (Upcycling)
Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University has created an Upcycling project which is a project to develop products or materials made from waste, to promote and support development of waste as a substitute material or create a new product. This is to reduce the amount of waste that must be sent to landfill or burn. Including promoting creative design and develop innovation from selected resources. Products were created from scrap materials are considered as green product groups. Which generally describes as integration of environmental responsibility into the product from the very start in the design process, to the use of raw materials and the energy needed to produce. In order gain the least waste and is safe for health and environment.
New products from the Upcycling project will be used for public at the university such as tables, chairs, etc. Students, personnel, and visitors who come to the University. Everyone has the right to use these facilities free of charge.
The use of waste materials to create new products, using innovations that will help modify existing waste materials, such as waste and scrap materials that have to be landfilled or incinerated. Turn to become a new and value added useful product or more beautiful, such as the Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University has introduced the use of electric wires to create a chair. The production process has to weld unused electrical wires as a chair, etc. The use of innovation of production will be different for each purpose of the work.
Renewable materials or new products obtained from the “Leftover Material Products or Materials Development Project ” received design cooperation from the Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University, Including the opportunity for all students to be able to jointly design creatively and develop innovations from selected resources. Students become more aware of Upcycling.
[Figure 3.4.3] Products that come from industrial waste
Transforming and reusing of unused materials
Transforming and reusing of unused materials to decorate the venue on special occasions which organized at the university, such as Kaset Fair or retirement party.
[Figure 3.4.4] Use recycled materials to decorate the place.
Kasetsart University aware of the importance of waste management, which some used items that can be recycled, such as used name plates that can be made into a pot to put flowers and ornamental plants, and the use to decorate the place. It is not only being beautiful, but it is also a cost-effective use of resources.
[Figure 3.4.5] Use recycled materials to decorate the place.
Bringing deteriorated tires and broken cement to be transformed, and use as pots for planting vegetable and other ornamental plants at the garden area next to the workplace.
[Figure 3.4.6] Bringing deteriorated tires and broken cement Bring to be a pot for planting vegetable garden
Used materials will be transformed and recycled. In order to decorate the place in various activities. That makes the surrounding more beautiful. Also makes the people who feel comfortable to see, and feel good to see. Since most of the recycled materials are green products. Therefore, this method has focused on maximizing environmental benefits.
The use of waste materials to create new products, considered as a good waste management option. Which the transformation of waste into decorative items requires innovation or specific technology for modification. It depends on the purpose of production. Including personnel that must have expertise as well. Product that produced from waste materials, such as bring back of the zinc name plates that were discarded into waste, to make a flower pot. In addition, the car that has deteriorated and broken cement can be repaired and turn into potted plants for planting vegetables and other ornamental plants.
Inorganic waste that cannot be recycled, will be sorted, and then dispose according to sanitary principles.
Before bringing waste back to use, there must have sorting for convenience of the carrier. Some kind of waste can be sell, to increase income and easy to eliminate. In addition, waste separation causes the dumping areas to be stored proportionately. So that public areas are not to look dirty, clean, and safe, resulting in improved visibility as well.
Kasetsart University has promoted waste sorting. There are operations to promote waste separation. Students can understand in separating waste. As well as creating awareness of students to separate waste at the source. A waste recovery mechanism was created to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be landfilled. Separated garbages were specified for easy using to purchase trash bins as well.
[Figure 3.4.7] Sorting and handling according to sanitation principles
Processing plastic scraps into oil
Kamphaeng Saen Campus lays out the form of plastic waste management by processing plastic scraps into oil, to achieve sustainable development by allowing the private sector to participate in. This will be benefit for communities and comply with regulations.
Biogas Production System: Circulating Area
According to the Royal initiation’s method, Kamphaeng Saen Campus adapted to compile wastes in the form of landfill sanitarily, as Bioreactor Landfill method, which will get the gas for primary use.
Electricity generation system from gas wells
Kamphaeng Saen Campus designed biogas production well, to use as heat energy or generate electricity.
Sifting and processing
According to the Royal initiation’s method, Kamphaeng Saen Campus adapted sifting and processing to get soil improvement substances, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), and material used for construction. When the first part is empty, then the landfill is recycled.
[Figure 3.4.12] Digging and processing
Artificial Wood Production System
[Figure 3.4.13] Artificial wood production system
Fuel waste production system
Solid waste which process through various management, such as the separation of combustible materials, shred or cut off to consistently small pieces of waste. Which the fuel waste obtained from this process will have a higher heat value or have better properties than using of garbage collected directly.
[Figure 3.4.14] Fuel waste production system
[Figure 3.4.15] Fuel waste types
The Energy and Environmental Engineering Center at Kamphaeng Saen; EEEC KPS, Faculty of Engineering at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University organized training continuously, to educate those who are interested in managing waste properly, and safe for both operators nearby communities and the environment.
The waste problem is a complex problem that requires integrated technology. The Energy and Environmental Engineering Center at Kamphaeng Saen; EEEC KPS, Faculty of Engineering at Kamphaeng Saen has created / invented a full range of equipment to process waste into biogas, electricity, fuel, artificial wood, etc. In order to see empirical results, systematical test and a manual for operation and management model. With the principle that waste is seen as a source of raw materials for energy processing, soil improvement substances, and construction materials.
The Energy and Environmental Engineering Center at Kamphaeng Saen; EEEC KPS, Faculty of Engineering at Kamphaeng Saen has established the waste management model, to ensure sustainable development by encouraging private sector to participate in. The community gains benefit and comply with regulations.
At present, the amount of waste increases every year due to the increasing population. That makes people are aware of it and pay more attention to waste that affects the environment. Kasetsart University also has projects related to waste management, such as the Upcycling project that uses waste to be recycled as alternative materials, or to create new products. The Green Roof project, repairing the old truck for re-use, using waste materials to decorate the place, etc. These activities are challenging to develop new innovations or new technologies. As an alternative to transforming waste into new products, and more new products being utilized. These projects were publicized to make more popular in a wide range. The development of innovations in order to be able to access the modification of waste in all forms or even more as well.
The government policy on waste management system of the country is aware of the problem of improperly waste management and accumulated a lot. Which is an environmental impact and may be harmful to public health. From the mentioned policy of government, therefore, it is an opportunity for Kasetsart University to give importance to garbage disposal properly. For this reason, the university has prepared various projects, in response to government policy, and is part of the process of effective solving systematic waste management problems, and the use of waste to benefit society.
Remark : All activities in 3.4 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 : Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.
Kasetsart University is aware of the problem of toxic waste management. If the management is not proper, it is discarded with general waste, and toxic substances from hazardous waste will contaminate soil and groundwater. Causing impact on public health and environment. Therefore, the University has promoted a campaign to sort waste, and create different media for everyone to understand the benefits of waste separation. Creating an understanding for students and personnel about the collection of toxic waste, classification of toxic waste and chemicals waste, collect and store waste, including treatment and disposal. The latest issue on particulate matter of 2.5 microns and less in diameter (PM2.5), from late 2018 to the beginning of the year 2019, Dust pollution surge covers Bangkok which is poisonous dust or particles in the air, because that particles are smaller than 2.5 micrometers, and effecting on health of students and personnel of Kasetsart University as well. Therefore, Kasetsart University uses 3R tools to manage waste, namely: Reuse, Recovery, Recycle of waste
– Reuse is the recycling of waste materials without any changes or actions, except cleaning and maintenance for the same purpose
– Recovery is separation and collection of materials that can be reused from waste materials, minerals, energy or water, through processing and / or extraction. In which the acquired items are not needed for the original purpose
– Recycle is recycling of materials, in which the physical properties change but with the same chemical composition by going through various processes.
Waste disposal in science laboratories
While the dust exceeding the standard values in Bangkok and vicinity, Kasetsart University received “Meteorological Station near the surface and air pollution” (KU TOWER) from the Director of the Institute of Water Resources Information (Public Organization). This is a research station for meteorological measurement near the surface and air quality. This research station occurred due to Kasetsart University signed a memorandum of cooperation for the technology development project for surveying, analyzing and processing data for water and climate management. Under the support of research funds from the Water Resources Information Institute (Public organization). The project is a collaboration between the Office of the Permanent Secretary for Science and Technology, Kasetsart University, King Mongkut’s University of Technology, and Thonburi Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi on 18 June 2012. Kasetsart University is responsible for developing air monitoring systems. Including meteorological features near the surface atmospheric pollution. The Faculty of Environment of Kasetsart University is responsible for establishing a research station for surface meteorological measurement and air quality, which is a 117 meters tower, continuously 24 hours at an elevation of 10, 30, 50, 75 and 110 meters for meteorological measurements. This research station is responsible for data analysis and online processing and will be a database for meteorological forecasting, in order to mitigate the effects of the said situation.
During the Kaset Fair in 2019, Kasetsart University implemented the security system to set up the traffic system within the university, for visitor of Kaset Fair to commute without interruption and flexibility. They can park on the university’s parking buildings, and then get on the electric vehicle service (free of charge). Besides, the University provided misty electric fan to create a water curtain to spraying water, in order to relief heat around the Fair. Using a high-pressure spraying truck to water the plants around the campus every morning, afternoon, and evening. In addition, requesting support from Bangkok Metropolitan Administrator (BMA) to organize a drone to help spray water around the university. Kasetsart University also has an online air pollution report system on campus each day, by linking to the website of the university and the website https://airq.ku.ac.th, the information is updated hourly at the beginning of the hour. The system automatically refreshes every 5 minutes.
[Figure 3.5.5] KU Tower
[Figure 3.5.6] Dust management PM 2.5
[Figure 3.5.7] Air dust condition report system Within Kasetsart University online
Student and personnel of Kasetsart University can separate toxic waste from solid waste, knowing the correct type of toxic waste, and knowing the correct storage methods which will reduce the amount of waste. Some types of waste can be recycled before dispose. Stop to think about whether we can reduce the amount of waste and recycle waste. The idea are as follows:
1. Avoiding items or packaging that will create waste, including pollution to the environment such as foam boxes or other toxic waste.
2. Choosing to use refill products that use less packaging, less waste as well
3. Using of products that can be returned packaging to manufacturer, such as various beverage bottles
4. Repair of appliances so that it can be used further, and not to become rubbish
5. Recycling of used packaging such as cloth bags instead of plastic bags
6. The separation of waste that is still available for easy storage and processing, such as plastics, glass, cans, and beverages
7. Reducing consumption and finding ways to increase the efficiency use of various appliances.
Kasetsart University considered an opportunity to develop more efficient and effective toxic waste management system in the future, also receiving cooperation from all sectors. There can be waste management by type of waste and harmless. In order to, restrain hazardous waste to negatively affect people and environment. This is consciousness and responsibility of the proper waste disposal and proper disposal of hazardous waste.
Talks on the topic “Finding the Truth of Forest Fire and PM2.5”
Objectives: To summarize the suggestions and environmental policy issues related to the forest fire and smog problems, the problem of PM2.5 in Thailand, and the issues on the public perception and preparedness for establishing preventive measures of both short- and long- term in order to further deliver to the government and relevant agencies.
Targets: Members of the Council of Engineers, government and private agencies, universities, and the general public
Outputs: Planning to establish a clear administration system, to manage the problems with the right solutions, and to build up collaboration among sectors for the sustainable prevention and mitigation of forest fire and PM2.5 problems.
Academic Talk on “Lessons Learned from the Problem on PM 2.5 in Thailand”
Objectives: To share any information on the current situation, impacts, and management of PM 2.5 problem in the areas of Kasetsart University, including Bangkok Metropolitan Region and the northern part of Thailand, to propose suggestions for preventing and managing the PM 2.5 problem in the future, which are useful for government, private and public sectors to apply those in dealing with such problem.
Targets: Academicians and relevant institutions
Outputs: Knowing the guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of PM2.5 in the future.
Remark : All activities in 3.5 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 11 : Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management. Another important target is Goal 12 : Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning, Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning.
Kasetsart University recognizes the importance of waste water management and improvement of water quality by nuturing treatment process and recycling. in order to reduce water using in departments and public sector. Including reducing contamination of waste water before releasing outside Therefore, various types of wastewater treatment systems have been established in the area of the university and surrounding areas as follows:
[Figure 3.6.1] Artificial pond
Artificial pond is waste – water teatment system. At present, It is an innovation to treat wastewater that has got a lot of attention. Since it is quite effective in treating organic substances, Nitrogen phosphorus, and suspensions, including heavy metals. It needs low cost of construction. The method of constructing an artificial pond can be done by digging nature like water paths. Allowing the water to flow parallel to the ground when releasing waste water into the circulatory system of the pond. Some organic matter will precipitate to the bottom of the swamp and will be decomposed. The substance in the water will be trapped by water plants that grow along both sides of the pond. At the same time, there will be oxygen added to the water. Which comes from aquatic plants such as the duckweed, etc. The water that is drained through the artificial pond will be filtered out various suspensions and can be further used. This type of water treatment process is considered a natural process, combined with growing wetland plants, this can make it look like a wetland. The invention of the wetland is an important innovation in the promotion and conservation of the environment. Including biodiversity of areas as well.
Construction of an artificial pond in Kasetsart University area received cooperation with government agencies in the area and nearby communities. At the University, village representatives organized activities for field study to learn about building artificial wetland. That makes the most effective to be used in residential and communities. And for waste water treatment. This can decrease waste water in the neighborhoods and increasing the amount of water that can be recycled.
Kasetsart University has set a team of experts to give the advice to people who are interested in building artificial pond in the household area. In addition, the University opens widely for a study visit in the large artificial pond that was built in Kasetsart University. Including propagating of wetland plants which planted around some artificial ponds and distributed to those who are interested to use with artificial ponds in other areas. The important impact from the building of artificial ponds is that the community can reduce the problem of waste water flowing to the external area. Including an area that treats wastewater that is sustainable and can be used for a long time.
Aerated Lagoon (AL)
[Figure 3.6.2] Aerated Lagoon (AL)
Aerated lagoon, waste-water treatment system, is an innovation that relies on the addition of oxygen from the aerator, to increase the amount of oxygen in the water, so that microbes can be used to decompose organic matter in the waste water faster. than allowing to decompose naturally. This kind of waste-water treatment system can treat quickly and efficiently. The principles of microbial work underlying the condition that there is oxygen from the aerator supporting the operation. which aside from adding oxygen to the water, also causes the mixing of the water in the well. and the decomposition of organic matter thoroughly within the treatment pond, this resulting in better quality wastewater.
A waste-water treatment plant surrounding an aerated lagoon is cultivated where needed within Kasetsart University. Through the cooperation of experts from the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Environment to take care of repairing and keep going in preservation of various systems. And the system related to treatment, including use using as a study area for students to further learning the development of effective systems.
Aerated lagoon effectively enhances the water quality. which can be more useful within Kasetsart University. There is a large aeration tank which delivers water that is passed through the treatment to the nearby community. for using in agricultural areas. Regarded as helping the community to prevent water shortage and make good use of water.
Grease trap from waste water
[Figure 3.6.3] Grease trap from waste water
Waste water from buildings discharged into the water source without first treatment will affect the overall water quality. and deteriorated natural water quality will be occurred. Therefore, Kasetsart University has a measure to prevent waste water from buildings or various areas within the university by installing a grease trap to treat waste water. which is a simple and appropriate technology considered to help reducing the severity of water pollution in another way. The grease trap will help from washing dishes and cooking utensils, not to flow together with the waste water. This method solved the problem of waste water that may affect the surrounding areas.
The working of grease trap occurs from washing container or doing various activities. Removing of floating fat on top layer of water surface will allow more oxygen in the water by using sieve that traps fat on top of the tank. After that, the trap will let the remaining water flow into the sewer. This can help to reduce the clogged-water pipe problem from fat. In addition, waste water discharged through the sewer is easier to treat for further using.
In the surrounding area of cafeteria on campus or the faculty’s building that has operation regarding cooking or cleaning utensils. There is a strict cooperation to install a grease trap. Including checking the installation of the grease tank correctly to be able to use with the most efficiency. Including a providing advice team regarding how to maintain sustenance and to prevent problems. further knowledge about the use of trapped fats to make fertilizer for plants as well.
The wastewater collection area in various areas for use in studies.
[Figure 3.6.4] The wastewater collection area in various areas for use in studies.
Students and trainee who participated in the waste-water treatment training were supported skills of sampling techniques in various areas of Kasetsart University. Such activities can use the results of the waste water quality analysis as a guideline for maximize efficiency of waste-water management. which also increase good awareness in preserving the environment in another way.
There is a monitoring of nearby areas at Kasetsart University that are likely to be waste-water sources. which make the possibility to link between the waterways within and outside the university. in order to acknowledge the problem. Also taking the research results obtained from collecting waste water samples in different areas for testing, in order to know the problems and forecast the potential impact. Including the study of areas that cause waste water clogging etc.
Reservoir for treatment and reuse
[Figure 3.6.5] Reservoir for treatment and reuse
Waste water from daily use has been transfered to hold in a large waste-water airy pond with an area of 16 rai. The objective is to let the water dry in the natural sunlight, which planted eucalyptus trees surrounding area , to help for odor treatment. When the water reaches the proper conditions, the water will be pumped from the treatment pond. When the water is in standard quality that can be used in daily life, then the water will be pumped up for use using again. such as watering plants, using in toilets, including for agricultural areas.
When the waste water has been used in daily life and then hold in the treatment pond, Kasetsart University has planted eucalyptus trees around the pond, for odor treatment. According to the properties of the eucalyptus tree that has the ability to treat the smell, and able to repel insects.. The eucalyptus trees can also store large amounts of water at the roots. and moisten the surroungding area. The strong roots also protect topsoil around the ponds.
The size of the treated water pond with an area of over 16 rai covers the connected areas of various departments within the university. In each department has utilized all of this treated water. Therefore, the process of maintenance, including the invention to develop water treatment systems. The University received cooperation from all departments in the area. There are activities organized together to campaign for maintenance, check and analyze the surrounding conditions that affect wastewater treatment. in order to achieve the most effective treatment procedures continuously.
Results Various system of waste water management within Kasetsart University lead to the reuse of treated water in larger quantities, to replace tap water consumption. Reducing of overall water resources usage which has good results, concurance with the water conservation policy of Kasetsart University. The waste water from daily life in Kasetsart University will have better quality. which can be used for a variety of activities. Including reducing problems caused by flooding that can be controlled. Also consistency of the amount of water in the area due to the reuse of water. As a result, the cost of purchasing tap water within the department tends to decrease steadily and helps reduce water shortages that may occur.
Kasetsart University has a plan to build more waste-water treatment area. Due to the current activities that cause the amount of water, that is discharged through the sewer in greater amount. The University has a policy to build more waste-water treatment points in each department to cover all areas. As well as monitoring the results of the treated wastewater including water quality data after treatment. in order to be used for further development of waste-water systems. As well as, increasing research on benefit of waste-water treatment such as waste from treatment ponds which can be further used to make fertilizer for trees and Biogas production, etc.
Nowadays, there are many methods of waste-water treatment which are invented and developed by new technology, combined with the current environmental conservation trend that is important around the world. It can be driven to develop researching work, equipment, or concepts related to waste-water treatment systems in Kasetsart University in term of biology, such as the use of wastewater treatment plants that are popular in the community. Which aside from being a low-cost method, plants that qualify for wastewater treatment process can also be used for other benefit. and also the extension of production to be biogas as well.
Remark : All activities in 3.6 refer to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the global goals, especially relating to Goal 6 : Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.